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3 edition of Mutations of the p53 gene in human sarcomas. found in the catalog.

Mutations of the p53 gene in human sarcomas.

Spyro Mousses

Mutations of the p53 gene in human sarcomas.

by Spyro Mousses

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Published by National Library of Canada in Ottawa .
Written in English


Edition Notes

Thesis (M.Sc.) -- University of Toronto, 1995.

SeriesCanadian theses = -- Thèses canadiennes
The Physical Object
Pagination2 microfiches : negative. --
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL17258906M
ISBN 100612020894
OCLC/WorldCa46499857

  Mutations in the TP53 gene are the most commonly acquired mutations in cancer. The p53 protein, made by the TP53 gene, normally acts as the supervisor in . BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations account for a substantial proportion of familial breast cancer, but clearly mutations in additional genes exist, one candidate being the p53 gene. To evaluate its putative.

To characterize cancer risk in heterozygous p53 mutation carriers, we analyzed cancer incidence in 56 germline p53 mutation carriers and 3, noncarriers from kindreds ascertained through patients with childhood soft-tissue sarcoma who were treated at the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. We systematically followed members in these kindreds for cancer incidence for >   A number of studies have been reported concerning p53 overexpression and p53 gene mutations in various types of human cancers. () In sarcomas, the p53 gene is altered in 25% to 65% of cases. () In this study, 33% of the samples showed altered p53, supporting the role of the p53 abnormalities in the pathogenesis of soft tissue sarcoma.

  THE p53 GENE, regarded as a tumor suppressor gene, is located on the short arm of human chromosome and encodes a amino acid nuclear phosphoprotein that acts as a transcription factor Mutations of this gene have been recognized in a wide variety of human malignancies-$ suggesting that p53 is one of the most important cancer-related. Somatic mutations in the TP53 gene have been found in nearly half of all head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). This type of cancerous tumor occurs in the moist lining of the mouth, nose, and throat. Most of the TP53 gene mutations involved in HNSCC change single amino acids in p53; these changes impair the protein's function. Without functioning p53, cell proliferation is not regulated.


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Mutations of the p53 gene in human sarcomas by Spyro Mousses Download PDF EPUB FB2

Somatic p53 mutations have been reported in 20–33% of all ons in the p53 gene often result in the loss of wild-type activity and the formation of a protein with dominant-negative activity over any remaining wild-type ons in the p53 gene can lead to the acquisition of new functions (gain-of-function mutations), such as multidrug resistance and metastatic Cited by: Roessner A, Schneider-Stock R, Radig K, Neumann W, Mittler U.

Alterations of p53 gene in soft tissue and bone tumors. Gen Diagn Pathol. Jul; (1):1– [Google Scholar] Yoo J, Lee HK, Kang CS, Park WS, Lee JY, Shim SI.

p53 gene mutations and p53 protein expression in human soft tissue by: No mutations were found in exons 5,6,8 or the remainder of exon 7. These results contrast with p53 mutations previously reported in carcinomas and sarcomas of human lung, colon, oesophagus and breast; these are primarily scattered over four of the five evolutionarily conserved domains, which include codon (refs ).Cited by: The E6 gene product of human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 and 18 can inactivate the p53 protein by promoting its degradation.

Because most HPV‐positive cervical carcinoma cell lines contain wild‐type p53 whereas HPV‐negative cell lines have point mutations in the p53 gene, a major role in the development of HPV‐negative cervical cancer has Cited by: MDM2 SNP can therefore modify sarcoma risk in both p53 mutation carriers and non-carriers.

These data also suggest that common genetic variations in the p53 pathway could prove useful in estimating sarcoma risk in a larger portion of the population compared to the currently utilized low-frequency, highly penetrant mutations in the p53 gene.

The kind of mutation can give insight into the functional properties of the protein affected. For p53, which acts as a tetrameric protein, point mutations are characteristic (21, 31, 45, 25), whereas in adenomatous polyposis gene (APC), which is a monomeric tumor suppressor protein, deletions and insertions are frequent ().In p53, a single-point mutation can act dominant negatively affecting.

The p53 tumour suppressor plays a pivotal role in the prevention of oncogenic transformation. Cancers frequently evade the potent antitumour surveillance mechanisms of p53 through mutation of the TP53 gene, with approximately 50% of all human malignancies expressing dysfunctional, mutated p53 proteins.

Interestingly, genetic lesions in the TP53 gene are only observed in 10% of Ewing Sarcomas. The tumor suppressor geneTP53 is the most commonly mutated gene in human cancer, and the prevalence of somatic (mostly missense) TP53 mutations in sporadic cancer ranging from 10% to 60%.

14 The p53 protein is inducible in response to several forms of genotoxic and nongenotoxic stress. Once activated, it controls biologic processes, including. Mutation of the p53 gene in human soft tissue sarcomas: Association with abnormalities of the RB1 gene.

Oncogene[11] Mulligan LM, Matlashewski GJ, Scrable HJ, Cavenee WK. Mechanisms of p53 loss in human sarcomas.

Proc Natl Acad Sci USA  Objective: Uterine sarcomas are rare, lethal cancers, and little is known about their molecular etiology.

The PTEN gene is located on chromosome 10q, a region that displays frequent loss of heterozygosity in human uterine mutations have been described in 40% to 60% of uterine adenocarcinomas.

To determine whether the PTEN gene is involved in the. Mutations of TP53 in human colorectal cancer. Germline mutations in TP53 are responsible for Li-Fraumeni syndrome, a familial cancer syndrome of diverse tumors, indicating a tumor suppressor role of p53 in a variety of tissues (Malkin et al., ; Srivastava et al., ).Consistently, the most frequently mutated gene in the Pan-Cancer cohort is TP53 (42% of all samples examined).

Based on this study of 50 sarcoma samples from American patients and the authors' previous study of 45 Korean tumor samples, the authors conclude that differing genetic and/or environmental mechanisms can affect sarcoma development or progression. Mutation of the H‐ras and K‐ras genes appears to be uncommon in sarcomas occurring in American.

TP53 missense mutations are the most common mutation in human cancers. Although missense TP53 mutations occur at ~ codons in the gene, eight of these mutations make up ~28% of all p53 mutations.

The specific DNA binding domain of the p53 protein is encoded by approximately base pairs spanning exons 5–8 of the gene. Most human tumor mutations are located in these exons (see Fig. 1, lower panel), even when the bias introduced by earlier studies in which only this segment of the gene was screened for mutations is corrected majority of these are missense mutations.

DESPITE extensive data linking mutations in the p53 gene to human tumorigenesis1, little is known about the cellular regulators and mediators of p53 function.

MDM2 is a strong candidate for one. The tumour suppressor genes, TP53 and RB1, and four genes involved in their regulation, INK4a, ARF, MDM2 and MDMX, were analysed in a series of 36 post-radiotherapy radiation-induced sarcomas.

One. We investigated three patients with cardiac angiosarcomas and two with cardiac rhabdomyosarcomas, all for mutations at exons 5, 6, 7 and 8 of the p53 gene and at exon 1 of K- point mutations were observed in the p53 gene in any of the five cases; however, at exon 1 of K- ras, three patients (60%) presented the same mutation at the first base of codon 13 (G to A transition).

Background: Acquired mutations in the p53 tumor-suppressor gene have been detected in several human cancers, including colon, breast, and lung cancer. Inherited mutations (transmitted through the germline) of this gene can underlie the Li-Fraumeni syndrome, a rare familial association of breast cancer in young women, childhood sarcomas, and other malignant neoplasms.

Introduction. The tumor-suppressor gene p53 (MIM ) plays a central role in tumorigenesis (Levine ).Somatic mutation of p53 has been found in >50% of human cancers and is the most common genetic alteration in human neoplasms (Hussain and Harris ; Martin et al.

).Moreover, germline mutations of p53 have been identified in 50%–70% of families with Li. Differences in the frequency of p53 mutations could lend weight to a role of p53 alterations in tumorigenesis in different STS entities.

Altogether, a mutational rate of about 16% in STS is reliable, based on data of p53 mutations from a data bank and recent publications (25–28).The diverse entities of sarcomas can be divided into two groups: (1) STS with a p53 mutational frequency of.

Cancer is a global problem that in addition to physical, emotional and physiological causes economic and social impacts. The p53 gene is a tumor suppressor gene found in many malignant and benign tumors; this has the primary function of keeping cells at rest after damaging to DNA.

The p53 acts in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis, mainly through autophagy, playing a role in cell cycle.

The p53 tumour suppressor is either mutated or inactivated by other alterations in most human cancers. Two papers in this issue show that even brief reactivation of the endogenous p53 genes .A cellular protein, originally identified in a spontaneous transformed mouse cell line and termed MDM2, has been shown to bind to p Complexing of p53 and MDM2 results in loss of p53 mediated transactivation of gene expression.

Significantly, amplification of the MDM2 gene is observed in a significant fraction of most common human sarcomas.